Those who apply that maxim will be disposed, perhaps, to agree with Arnold’s contention that great inequalities, whatever other advantages they may possess, are likely, at all events, to be injurious to the rich. In recognizing the poison it will have armed itself with an antidote. It is, on the contrary, that a considerable number among those to whom it appeals are too easily contented–too ready to forget fundamental issues and to allow themselves to be bought off with an advance in wages, too willing to accept the moral premises of their masters, even when they dispute the economic conclusions which their master draw form them, too distrustful of themselves and too much disposed to believe that the minority which has exercised authority in the past possesses a mana, a mysterious wisdom, and can wield a karakia, a magical influence bringing prosperity or misfortune. It introduces the concept of inequalities with variables, and shows how to find a solution set for an inequality, given a replacement set. When it does so, what it is apt to desire is not a social order of a different kind, in which money and economic power will no longer be the criterion of achievement, but a social order of the same kind, in which money and economic power will be somewhat differently distributed. Elizabeth Anderson, Aaron Ross Powell, and Trevor Burrus, Timothy P. Carney, Trevor Burrus, and Aaron Ross Powell, James Otteson, Aaron Ross Powell, and Trevor Burrus, Kristol, “On the Democratic Idea in America”. There is some reason for holding, for instance, that, while eighty per cent of children at the age of ten fall within a range of about three mental years, the most backward may have a mental age of five, while the most gifted may have one of as much as fifteen. The religion of inequality Andrew Green • December 21, 2014 • 0 Comments The other day, for no apparent reason, I pulled off the shelf my old second-hand copy of R.H. Tawney’s book Equality . As long as they are sure that they are masters of the situation and will hold what they have, they are all kindness and condescension. Nigeria has seen a similar group, Boko Haram, attempt the establishment of an Islamic state, resulting in thousands of casualties. Additionally, the Quran has strict rules regarding warfare that restrict, among other things, the destruction of property and the death of civilians. If followers, they are liable, with more excuse, to behave on occasion in a manner at once docile and irritable, as men who alternately touch their hats and grumble at the wickedness of those to whom they touch them…. How men in given circumstances tend to behave, and how, as a consequence, wealth tends in such circumstances to be distributed, are subjects about which valuable and illuminating, if necessarily tentative, generalizations have been produced by economists. But, if he could be induced to study the statistical evidence accumulated since he wrote, it is probable that he would hail it as an unanticipated confirmation of conclusions to which, unaided by the apparatus of science, he had found his way, and, while noting with interest the inequalities which had fallen, would feel even greater astonishment at those which had survived. “On the one side, in fact, inequality harms by pampering; on the other by vulgarizing and depressing. Not only is crucifixion forbidden by Jewish law, but most experts agree the Jesus was executed by Romans, who controlled Israel at the time and had also executed thousands of Jews. Chapter One: The Religion of Inequality Discursing some sixty years ago…Matthew Arnold observed that in England inequality is almost a religion. In 19 BCE, Jews were expelled from the city for unknown reasons, possibly as a result of the theft of funding for a temple in Judea. When Arnold, who was an inspector of schools as well as a poet, and who, whatever his failings, was not prone to demagogy, wrote “choose equality,” he did not suggest, it may be suspected, that all children appeared to him to be equally clever, but that a nation acts unwisely in stressing heavily distinctions based on birth or money…, The equality which all these thinkers emphasize as desirable is not equality of capacity or attainment, but of circumstances, institutions, and manner of life. Nero quickly ordered Christians in Rome to be rounded up, tortured, and killed in a series of public spectacles. In the light of the data presented–to mention only two recent examples–in such works as Dr. Burt’s admirable studies of the distribution of educational abilities among school‐​children, or the Report of the Mental Deficiency Committee, the fact that, quite apart from differences of environment and opportunity, individuals differ widely in their natural endowments, and in their capacity to develop them by education, is not open to question. To this day, religion has continued to be a major factor in bloody battles worldwide. In spite of all the carnage caused by it, it is worth remembering that religions lead to far more good than harm. It continues to find expression in an attitude which deplores in one breath the recurrence of class struggles, and the danger to prosperity caused by class agitation and the intrusion of class interests into politics, and defends in the next, in all innocence and good faith, arrangements, such as those involving, for example, educational inequality, which, whatever their merits, are certainly themselves a cause of class divisions. The Quran actually dictates that Allah considers women equal to men, promotes the education of both girls and boys, and says that women can refuse marriage to a prospective husband. Thus inequality, as Arnold remarked, does not only result in pampering one class; it results also in depressing another. Outside of Rome, however, anti-Christian sentiment ran less high, and by 323 AD, Constantine had made Christianity the Roman Empire’s official religion. Clearly, such a change is required, and, clearly, it is coming. If the cult of inequality as a principle and an ideal has declined with the decline of the aristocratic society of which it was the accompaniment, it is less certain, perhaps, that the loss of its sentimental credentials has so far impaired its practical influence as to empty Arnold’s words of all their significance. Though the history of these conflicts will be seen in the next section, we should first examine a major factor in religious inequality: misunderstanding. Many Middle Eastern countries have large Christian communities that are comprised of up to 10% of all citizens. Her remarked on the incompatibility of that attitude with the spirit of humanity, and sense of the dignity of man as man, which are the marks of a truly civilized society. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1952 (Originally Published: 1931), 19–48 (Excerpts).